Prostate cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the prostate gland that often spreads to the seminal vesicles. The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum, surrounding the urethra. In contrast, the seminal vesicles have two small glands on each side of the prostate.
Not all growth of cells in the prostate gland is as malignant as prostate cancer. Some growth of cells is benign and doesn’t pose any threat.
Characteristics of Benign Growth:
- They are non-threatening
- Don’t spread or invade other body parts
- Easily removable through a minor surgery
Characteristics of prostate cancer:
- It can be life-threatening based in severe cases.
- It can spread or metastasize to nearby tissues, organs, and body parts
- It can be removed but may recur
Symptoms of prostate cancer:
- Blood in urine or semen
- Difficulty during urination
- No control over stopping urination
- Frequent urination
- Feeling pain or burning sensation during urination or ejaculation
- Sudden onset of erectile dysfunction
Symptoms when cancer spread beyond the prostate gland:
- Swelling in the lower body, back, or hip
- Abnormal bowel movements and urination
- Pain in hip or bone
- Weight loss
- The flow of urine becomes weak
- Patients may experience pain around the prostate while sitting.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
The symptoms associated with prostate cancer often draw similarities with less-serious health issues. It’s better to visit a certified urologist and take a screening. It is the only way to confirm whether you need Prostate Cancer Treatment in Dubai or another treatment.
The exact cause of prostate cancer is still unknown. However, researchers have found some risk factors transforming prostate cells into cancer cells.
Other possible factors linked to Prostate Cancer
- High levels of androgen in the body
- Inflammation in the prostate
- Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals
- Exposure to the sun and other types of radiation
- Presence of a high level of insulin-like growth factor-1 in the body
- Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is caused when the DNA of a normal prostate cell changes abnormally. DNA is composed of chemicals that control the function of our cells. It is the primary key to our genes. We inherit similarities to our parents all because of our DNA structure.
Oncogenes are those genes that help our cells to grow, divide into new cells, and eventually die.
Then there are tumour suppressor genes that aid in controlling cellular growth. These genes also repair any mistake in our DNA. If the cell is irreparable, the tumour suppressor genes will kill the cell.
Any DNA mutations or changes can turn ON the Oncogenes or turn OFF the tumour suppressor genes, leading to uncontrollable growth in cells. This is what causes cancer.
Some people can either inherit these traits from parents or acquire this during their lifetime.
About 10% of prostate cancers fall under the category of hereditary cancer. This type of cancer is caused when people inherit mutated genes from their parents.
Types of inherited genes linked to hereditary prostate cancer:
- BRCA1 and BRCA2
- DNA mismatch repair genes
- ATM, PALB2, RAD51D and CHEK2
Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancers at their earliest stage are primarily asymptomatic. However, advanced cancers are diagnosed based on a person’s symptoms.
A prostate cancer diagnosis is conducted in Dubai through screening tests such as PSA blood tests, physical exams, and Biopsy. If your primary doctor suspects a possibility, he/she might refer you to a urologist for Prostate Cancer Treatment in Dubai.
Screening refers to a testing process to identify a disease with no symptoms. There are two prostate screening tests: PSA blood test and Digital Rectal Examination (DRE). You should remember that these tests are not 100% accurate. Therefore, always seeks expert guidance for your Prostate Cancer Treatment in Dubai.
PSA blood test
PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a form of protein only found in prostate and prostate cancers. A low level of PSA is a sign of a healthy prostate. Meanwhile, a high level of PSA can be a sign of prostate cancer in most cases. However, non-cancerous conditions like prostatitis and inflammation can also result in high PSA levels.
- PSA level under four ng/mL of blood- Very low risk of prostate cancer
- PSA level between 4-10 ng/ml of blood- Borderline (chances are 1 out of 4)
- PSA level above ten ng/ml of blood- Chances of prostate cancer are 50 % above
In this case, your urologist in Dubai probes the rectum with a lubricated, gloved finger to find any abnormal growth inside the prostate. It is often done with a PSA test for more accuracy.
In Biopsy, the doctor removes a tiny piece of tissue from your prostate and checks it under the microscope for cancer cells.
Besides PSA and DRE results, your doctor also considers other factors such as your family history, ethnicity, biopsy history, etc. After analyzing the biopsy results, your doctor in Dubai will decide whether to start your prostate cancer treatment or not.
Stages and Grading of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is graded using the Gleason Score. Besides, the doctor can tell the progress and spreading rate of cancer with staging.
- Grading (Gleason System Scoring)
- Grade 3 and less: Tissue is close to normal.
- Grade 3– Slow growing tumour
- Grade 5– The risk of prostate cancer is high
Staging states the current location of the cancer cells within a prostate. It also informs the extensiveness of cancer and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
It is determined through DRE and imaging studies such as CT scans, MRIs, bone scans, and ultrasound.
Your doctor may not prescribe you any prostate cancer treatment if the growth is slower. However, if the growth is faster, your doctor will soon start your prostate cancer treatment in Dubai. We recommend you discuss your treatment options with our doctor and follow it precisely. The treatment plan for prostate cancer depends on the following factors:
- The stage and grade of the cancer
- The risk associated with the condition
- Based on treatment goals such as level of side effects and duration of efficacy.
- Age and health of patients
- Chances of relapse
Frequently Asked Questions
Active surveillance is a process used for monitoring the growth of cancer cells. Your doctor in Dubai will schedule periodic tests such as PSA tests, biopsies, and DREs to check how fast the cancer is growing. In any growth of notice, then doctors may prescribe radiation or surgery treatments. Although the cause of prostate cancer is not clearly understood, researchers have found certain links:
Active surveillance is a process used for monitoring the growth of cancer cells. Your doctor in Dubai will schedule periodic tests such as PSA tests, biopsies, and DREs to check how fast the cancer is growing. In any growth of notice, then doctors may prescribe radiation or surgery treatments.
Although the cause of prostate cancer is not clearly understood, researchers have found certain links: