World-Class Plastic Surgeons Share All You Need to Know About Gynecomastia What is Gynecomastia, Surgery, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment What is Gynecomastia (Enlarged Breasts in Men)? BMC Plastic Surgeon: Gynecomastia is a pathology of the mammary glands in men, revealed by a one- or two-sided increase in their size due to hypertrophy of the glandular or adipose tissue. It manifests itself as compaction and enlargement of the breast, a feeling of heaviness, pain during palpation. It can regress on its own. With the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, surgical treatment is indicated, since the prolonged existence of Gynecomastia poses a risk in the development of a malignant tumor of the mammary gland. In case of Gynecomastia, mammary glands can reach from 2 to 10 cm (usually about 4 cm) in diameter The frequency of gynecomastia is from 50 to 70% among healthy adolescents 13-14 years old, about 40% – among young men, up to 60% – 70% – among older men. Gynecomastia gives men physical discomfort and psychological difficulties. What are the Gynecomastia Types? BMC Plastic Surgeon: Distinguish true Gynecomastia and false (or pseudo-gynecomastia). True gynecomastia is characterized by hypertrophy of the glandular tissue and stroma, pseudo-gynecomastia is caused by massive deposits of adipose tissue, increasing the volume of the mammary glands, and is observed in men with obesity. There is true gynecomastia, as a variant of the physiological norm at certain age periods, and pathological Gynecomastia, which is a symptom of serious pathologies in the body. True idiopathic (physiological) Gynecomastia can be of three types:
- Gynecomastia of the Neonatal Period – breast swelling is observed in 60-90% of newborns. This condition is due to the influence of the sex hormones of the mother, which got into the child’s body in utero. It does not require treatment, the mammary glands are reduced after 2-4 weeks.
- Gynecomastia of the Pubertal Period – develops in 30-60% of adolescents aged 13-14; in 80% of cases, there is bilateral enlargement of the glands. It is caused by the immaturity of the male reproductive system and the predominance of female sex hormones over male ones. Usually regresses independently within 1-2 years.
- Gynecomastia of advanced age – observed in men 50-80 years old due to a decrease in testosterone production and a predominance of estrogen.
- Violation of the ratio of testosterone and estrogen in the body of a man. This condition can be observed with hormone active tumors of the pituitary gland, testes, adrenal glands, stomach, pancreas, lungs, primary and age-related hypogonadism (insufficient functioning of the gonads), prostate adenoma, inflammatory processes in the testicles, Addison’s disease, etc .;
- Hyperprolactinemia – increased secretion of prolactin in pituitary tumors, hypothyroidism;\
- Diseases accompanied by metabolic disorders – with diffuse toxic goiter, diabetes mellitus, obesity, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc .;
- Subcutaneous Mastectomy with preservation of the areola from para-areolar incision
- Subcutaneous Mastectomy from para-areolar incision with liposuction;
- Endoscopic Mastectomy (with small enlargements of the mammary glands)